Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Diamond Materials Science

Greg Swain


314 CEM


REU Site Director

Research webpage

Primary Research Area

Analytical (An)

Other Area(s) of Interest

Biological (Bi)

Material (Ma)


(Research Description PDF)

Research in our group is interdisciplinary and spans several fields: physical and analytical electrochemistry, carbon materials, corrosion science and neuroscience. We conduct fundamental research with advanced carbon materials to address key problems and technological needs in energy, health and the environment. Our core science lies in the preparation, processing and application of diamond and diamond-like carbons. We seek to considerably improve the ability to prepare and control the material properties of single and polycrystalline diamond, and nitrogen-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon, and to explore frontier applications where the unique material properties are essential for performance.

Electrochemical Detection and Sensing – Boron-doped diamond and nitrogen-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon thin-film electrodes are being used in electrochemical detectors coupled with flow injection analysis, liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. We are developing new electrochemical assays for different classes of analytes important in health and the environment. Optically transparent diamond electrodes are also being developed for use in spectroelectrochemical sensing.

Neuroanalytical Chemistry – In vitro electrochemical, immunohistochemical and neuropharmacological methods are being used to study how neurogenic signaling in the vasculature (ATP and norepinephrine) and the gastrointestinal tract (5-HT and NO) is altered in obesity. These measurements make use of diamond and carbon fiber microelectrodes, and tissues from animal models and humans. The dysfunction in neurogenic signaling is linked to inflammation. Therefore, we are also working on in vitro electrochemical measurements of peroxynitrite (PON); a biomarker of inflammation. The work has important implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of obesity-linked hypertension and motility disorders.

Electrochemical Sensors for Health – A team of material scientists, chemists, physiologists, microbiologists, veterinary scientists and physicians is developing a multi-electrode sensing platform for bandages to electrochemically monitor biomarkers of wound healing. In addition, the bandage will incorporate electrodes for electrogenerating oxidants, as needed (H2O2, O3, etc.), to inactivate infectious bacteria, thus lessening the need for antibiotic use. These smart bandages utilize ink-jet printed electrode technology. Our team is also developing electrochemical sensors for NO and peroxynitrite (PON) that will be incorporated into a portable analyzer for quick and easy measure­ment of exhaled breath. The sensors utilize a conducting diamond platform that has been chemically functionalized to enable the selective and sensitive detection of each biomarker. We are targeting the analyzer for use in respiratory disease diagnostics including cystic fibrosis, lung cancer and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB); a disease that affects a large percentage of lung and heart-lung transplant recipients.

Corrosion Protective Coatings and Surface Pretreatments – Research is being conducted to understand how advanced inorganic coatings and surface pretreatments inhibit corrosion on aluminum and magnesium aerospace alloys. We are particularly interested in the formation, structure and corrosion protection afforded by trivalent chromium process coatings on various aluminum alloys (AA2xxx, 6xxx and 7xxx). Electrochemical measurements are utilized to assess the corrosion status of specimens in the laboratory and during different accelerated degradation tests.

Nanostructured Carbon Powders for Separations and Chemical Sensing – We are preparing high surface area and electrically conducting diamond or diamond/nanocarbon composite powders for use in separations and chemical sensing. The diamond powders are produced by overcoating a substrate powder (diamond, sp2 carbon or metal oxide) with a thin layer of boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond. These nanoscale powders offer superb microstructural stability, corrosion resistance and stability over a wide pH range. The conducting and functionalized powders are being developed for use in electrochemically-modulated and reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

Selected Publications

Structure, Electronic Properties and Electrochemical Behavior of a Boron-Doped Diamond/Quartz Optically Transparent Electrode, N. Wachter, C.Munson, R.Jarosova, I. Berkun, R. Rocha-Filho, G. M. Swain, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016. 10.1021/acsami.6b02467

Effects of Film Morphology and Surface Chemistry on the Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome c at Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes, Y. Dai, D. A. Proshlyakov, G. M. Swain, Electrochim Acta 2016, 197, 129-138.

Electrochemical Detection of Peroxynitrite Using Hemin-PEDOT Functionalized Boron-Doped Diamond Microelectrode, S. F. Peteu, B. W. Whitman, J. J. Galligan, G. M. Swain, Analyst 2016, 141, 1796-1806.

Aliphatic Polyamine Oxidation Reaction Mechanism at Boron-doped Microcrystalline and Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Electrodes, M. Witek, M. D. Koppang, G. M. Swain, Electroanalysis 2016, 28, 151-160.

Macrophage Depletion Lowers Blood Pressure and Restores Sympathetic Nerve 2-Adrenergic Receptor Function in Mesenteric Arteries of DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Rats, L.V. Thang, S. L. Demel, R. Crawford, N. E. Kaminski, G. M. Swain, N. Van Rooijen , J. J. J. Galligan, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2015 309, H1186-197.


Editor-in Chief, Diamond and Related Materials (Elsevier), 2011-present

Member of the Neuroscience Program and The Fraunhofer Center for Coatings and Laser Applications (CCL)

Adjunct Appointments: Departments of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and Pharmacology and Toxicology

B.A., 1985, Univ. of Texas at Dallas

Ph.D., 1991, Univ. of Kansas

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, 1991-92, Space Power Institute and the Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn Univ.

JSPS Postdoc¬toral Research Fellow, 1992-93, Tohoku Univ., Japan

Full CV (PDF)


2015 Corrosion Best Paper Award
1992 - 1993 JSPS Postdoctoral Research Fellow Tohoku University, Japan
1991 Ph.D. University of Kansas
1991 - 1992 Postdoctoral Research Fellow Space Power Institute and the Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University
1985 Bachelor of Arts University of Texas at Dallas
Associate Editor Diamond and Related Materials